Written by researcher20

針對不同種類的研究問題,研究者會利用各種不同的研究方法、資料來回答。許多研究方法的書都列了研究問題種類與研究方法的對照表,我下面列的是摘自 Yin (2009) 的 case study reserach (這本書有 kindle 版)。

Methods Form of research question Requires control of behavioral events? Focus on contemporary events?
Experiment how, why? yes yes
Survey who, what, where, how many, how much? no yes
Archival analysis who, what, where, how many, how much? no yes/no
History how, why? no no
Case study how, why? no yes

定義研究問題可說是作研究中最重要的一步,要了解到研究問題必須同時包含實質 (substance, 也就是你的研究是關於什麼的) 與形式 (forms, 像是 who, how, why, what, where 等)。
但具體的研究問題是什麼,很可惜 Yin (2009) 指出一個方向。沒關係,Miles and Huberman (1994) 這本質化資料分析的經典作 Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook,給出了一些可能考的方向。雖然這是重在質化研究,但我覺得量化研究在某種程度上也可以參考參考

Sample questions General form
  Do children read better as a result of this program?
  Do children read better in this program as compared with other program?
Does X cause Y?

Does X cause more of Y than Z cause of Y?

Noncausal-research   What is the daily experience of the children participating in this program?
  Are the remedial centers located in the areas of primary need?
What is X?

Is X located where Y is lowest?

Noncausal-policy   What do we mean by “special education children” and “remediation”?
  Is this program receiving support from state and local officials for political rather than educational reasons?
What does “Y” mean?

Why does S support X?

Noncausal-evaluation   What are the characteristics of the best CAI materials being used?
  How do the various minority groups view this program and judge its quality?
What makes W good?

Does T value X?

Noncausal-management   What is the cost-effectiveness of the program compared with other programs?
  How can we maximize the scheduling of classes at the centers with minimum expense?
Is X more cost-effective than Z?

How are U maximized and V minimized simultaneously?

由於這部分英文還不難,但是不太好翻譯,所以我就原汁原味的呈現出來。另,網友告知 Miles and Huberman (1994) 這本書有中文版,書名為質性研究資料分析,有興趣的可以看看。
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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