訪談:如何問好問題?(Interview: How to ask good questions?)

翻了一下我寫作的文章,發現質化研究寫得真少,我明明就是一半作質化,一半作量化的啊,應該要平衡一下才對。今天就來談談如何問訪談問題(interview questions)。

訪談是質化研究中搜集資料的方法,由於這種方法很大程度是依照訪談者的技巧,如何問「對」的問題或是好問題,就是一門學問了。Merriam (1998)引用了Strauss, Schatzman, Bucher, and Sabshin (1981)的文章,列出了四種問題:假設問題(hypothetical), 唱反調(devil’s advocate), 理想情況(ideal position), 和解釋性問題(interpretive questions)。

  1. 假設性問題:假設性問題就是假設一個情況,問受訪者會怎麼做。
    例子:Suppose it is my first day in this training program. What would it be like?
  2. 唱反調:質疑受訪者的答案。
    例子:Some people would say that employees who lose their job did something to bring it about. What would you say to them?
  3. 理想情況:請受訪者描述一個理想的狀況
    例子:What do you think the ideal training program would be like?
  4. 解釋性問題:進一步深入受訪者所回答的
    例子:Whould you say that returning to school as an adult is different from what you expected?

參考書目:Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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