Constructivism 與 Constructionism 大不同

不論你是研究哪個學門,可能/應該/或許都上過知識論 (Epistemology) 或學習理論的課程,因為這關乎到你如何看待世界。在談知識論的分支理論時,你應該對constructivism不陌生。然而,有些人還提到constructionism,甚至把這兩個詞混用。究竟這兩個詞各代表什麼意思呢?有什麼區別呢?

Constructivism 這個詞是是皮亞傑 (Jean Piaget) 所提出來的認知理論 (cognitive theory)。此派哲學認為「知識是 人類建構的觀念所組成」 (knowledge is a compilation of human-made constructions)、「知識並非中性地發現客觀的事實」(not the neutral discovery of an objective truth) (詳見維基百科)。

Knowledge is the result of this active process of construction” (Copple, Sigel, & Saunders, 1984, p. 18).

Constructivism 知名的學者:Vygotsky, Piaget, Dewey, Vico, Rorty, Bruner。

教育哲學 (educational philosophy)上也用 constructivism 這個詞,認為學生在學習過程中,建構他們自己的、獨特的意義。依照這種教育哲學,教育家強調要學生掌控自己的學習,並不強調lecture。

Constructionism 這個詞是Seymour Papert所使用,Papert 是Piaget的學生,這個詞指的是基於Constructivism所衍生的教學方法 (educational methods)。Constructionism 較側重學習 (learning, or learning to learn),認為

learning occurs "most felicitously" when constructing a public artifact "whether a sand castle on the beach or a theory of the universe.

所以特別強調making things in learning。

希望我簡單說明constructivism 與 constructionism的不同,能讓大家分清楚。如果有教育領域的專家,歡迎補充說明~


Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the difference?

Copple, C., Sigel, I. E., & Saunders, R. (1984). Educating the young thinker: Classroom strategies for cognitive growth. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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