including 與ranging from …to 的用法
站長按：這是研究生2.0的特約編輯與大家分享的，希望大家在寫英文paper的時候，正確地使用including 和ranging from …to。
Whether you work in the humanities, sciences, or social sciences, anything you write is likely to contain one or more lists. Dealing with these lists via bullet points is best avoided, as it can interrupt the natural flow of your argument.
However, considerable confusion seems to exist among EFL speakers about how best to handle lists of items in English. Lately, I have seen several clients using ‘to’ instead of ‘and’ to conclude a list that begins with ‘such as’ or ‘including’. This is probably due to a confusion between two distinct types of English list: the ‘including…and’ list and the ‘ranging from…to’ list.
對於英語學習者來說，處理多項資料非常令人困惑。很多顧客在使用such as或是including的時候，後面加的用 to 而不是用 and 。這應該是把including與ranging from … to … 這兩種用法搞混了。
The first type of list may be used for almost anything: the items in it do not need to be related except in the mind of the writer. For example, it is correct to say ‘Primary colours include red, yellow and blue’ and equally correct to say ‘My interests include travel, cuckoo clocks, and football.’
第一種方式用including 或 includes 可以用在任何事情，只要作者覺得相關即可。舉例來說，你可以說「主要的顏色包含紅色、黃色、和藍色」。你也可以說「我的興趣包含旅遊、布谷鳥鐘和足球」。
The ‘ranging from…to’ list, in contrast, has more rigorous requirements. First, using it implies a fairly obvious contrast between all the items before the ‘to’ and all the items after the ‘to’. Thus it would be correct to say ‘The company sold items ranging from nightgowns and teddy bears to torpedoes and grenades’ (ample contrast), but not ‘The company sold items ranging from plums and apricots to peaches and nectarines’ (insufficient contrast).
如果是用ranging from …to 來呈現多項資料的話，這種說法有比較多規定。首先，在to前面與後面的東西必須有明顯的對比。所以像這樣說法：「這間公司賣出了許多東西，從睡衣與泰迪熊到魚雷與手榴彈」，但說「這間公司販賣的商品從李子、杏子到桃子、甜桃」就不太正確，因為前面的李子、杏子與桃子、甜桃的對比不是那麼清楚。
Second, all items placed before the ‘to’ should relate to one another, and so should all items listed after the ‘to’. Therefore, it would be correct to say, ‘She wrote on a variety of subjects ranging from liver- and kidney function to the poetry of Blake and Keats’, but not ‘She wrote on a variety of subjects ranging from liver function and the poetry of Blake to kidney function and the poetry of Keats.’
The use of the word ‘ranging’ is not essential, but is highly recommended – especially if one or more of the items in your list is a geographic location or a time period.
If in doubt, a simple ‘including…and’ list is usually your best bet. Please note, however, that legal writing and contracts may assign a very different meaning to the word ‘including’ than other types of writing do. Especially in the U.S., lawyers interpret ‘including’ to mean ‘including [only these items]’, even though U.S. scientists and others interpret it to mean ‘including [these items and perhaps others]’. So where an academic can write ‘The primary colours include red and yellow’, a lawyer may be expected to write ‘The primary colours include, but are not limited to, red and yellow.’